Indian ocean – Gurugama http://gurugama.org/ Mon, 03 Jan 2022 07:03:00 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 http://gurugama.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/favicon-16.png Indian ocean – Gurugama http://gurugama.org/ 32 32 Chinese Navy: A powerful Chinese navy is ready to flex its muscles http://gurugama.org/chinese-navy-a-powerful-chinese-navy-is-ready-to-flex-its-muscles/ Mon, 03 Jan 2022 07:03:00 +0000 http://gurugama.org/chinese-navy-a-powerful-chinese-navy-is-ready-to-flex-its-muscles/ The past year has been phenomenal for the Chinese navy – the People’s Liberation Army (PLAN) Navy – with around 170,000 tonnes of new ships commissioned in 2021. Armed with such an influx of ships each year, the PLAN has grown into one of the most modern and capable navies in the world, far eclipsing […]]]>
The past year has been phenomenal for the Chinese navy – the People’s Liberation Army (PLAN) Navy – with around 170,000 tonnes of new ships commissioned in 2021.

Armed with such an influx of ships each year, the PLAN has grown into one of the most modern and capable navies in the world, far eclipsing any other Asian navy.

The transport of the year included one Type 094A Guided Missile Submarine (SSBN), two Type 075 (LHD) helicopter landing docks, three Type 055 cruisers, seven Type 052D destroyers, six Type 056A, six Type 082II Mine Countermeasures Vessels, one Ship Cable Layer and three Type 927 Surveillance Vessels.

The quantity and diversity of PLAN’s modern ships imbues it with growing confidence, reinforced by the nationalism stoked by an increasingly martial Communist Party.

China is not only seeking to dominate the waters near its shores, but to expand beyond those called the First Island Chain and influence the narrative and hoist a flag in distant oceans.

Indeed, 2022 will mark the 14th year of a continued Chinese naval presence in the Gulf of Aden, supported by an PLA base in Djibouti.

The largest of the aforementioned list of ships completed in 2021 is the Type 075 LHD, which resembles an aircraft carrier thanks to its flat deck. An LHD carries a large number of helicopters (up to 28 in the case of the Type 075) from China, and it accommodates landing craft and hovercraft in an internal trunk deck for amphibious operations. Up to 1,000 Marines and their amphibious assault vehicles can also be transported.

PLAN’s first Type 075 named Hainan, with a displacement of around 36,000 tonnes, entered service with the South Sea Fleet in Sanya, Hainan Island, on April 23, 2021, while the second officially entered service on December 26 as a late “Christmas present”. (Ironically, China’s paranoia means religious holidays such as Christmas are banned by new laws, even though around 5 percent of the Chinese population are Christians).

The second LHD, commissioned at Zhoushan Naval Base as Guangxi, was assigned to the East Sea Fleet and is particularly focused on operations against Taiwan. Interestingly, the East Sea Fleet had so far received neither aircraft carriers nor LHDs.

Guangxi was launched on April 22, 2020 and began sea trials in December of the same year. In addition to its helicopter and amphibious capabilities, the LHD lends itself to use as a logistics and command platform for any emergency operation against Taiwan. Aircraft carriers could be used to deter any intervention by the United States and its allies in a future Chinese attack on Taiwan.

Other LHDs are also on their way, as a third Type 075 was launched by the Hudong Zhonghua Shipyard in Shanghai on January 29, 2021 and began sea trials on November 25, 2021.

China maintains an impressive shipbuilding rate, with an LHD launched every six months so far. Indeed, no other country can match the record pace of shipbuilding achieved by China. For the first-in-class Type 075, it took 340 days from launch to maiden voyage. By the time of the second LHD, this milestone had been reduced to 245 days, despite the impact of COVID-19.

Another example of shipbuilding productivity, the same Hudong Zonghua facility launched on the same day two Type 054A frigates and one Type 071E (LPD) amphibious vessel (the latter being built for Thailand). The same yard also built 054A / P type frigates for Pakistan.

The Type 075s provide the PLA with a much larger amphibious and helicopter-borne lift capacity than its current fleet of eight Type 071 LPDs. It is not known how many Type 075s China will build, but there will likely be at least six. , some even claim eight. These LHDs could be supplemented in the future by the larger Type 076.

Periodic updates to satellite images from the Jiangnan Changxingdao shipyard in Shanghai show that progress is also being made on the PLAN’s third aircraft carrier. Called Type 003, this aircraft carrier is quite different from the previous two since it is larger and does not need a ski jump ramp on the bow to assist aircraft take off.

Instead, the Type 003 will use a catapult launch system, just like the US Navy (USN) does. However, China has made the technological leap directly to an electromagnetic aircraft launch system (EMALS) instead of first adopting a steam catapult system. All modern American aircraft carriers used steam catapults until the arrival of the first Ford-class aircraft carrier equipped with EMALS.

The EMALS is evident in the satellite imagery of the Type 003 transporter, with two launch systems at the front and one at the waist. The same images suggest the ship is around 316m long and 71.3m wide. Two elevators for raising and lowering planes to / from the hangar deck are approximately 21m wide, they are placed on the starboard side of the ship.

EMALS is important to the PLAN, as it will allow more heavily armed and refueled fighters to take off from Type 003 than is possible from Types 001 and 002. This also means that different aircraft such as the Developing airborne early warning aircraft KJ-600 can operate from type 003, which is not possible on previous aircraft carriers.

Incidentally, a new massive dry dock in Sanya has been built, one large enough to accommodate the Type 003 transporter. This suggests that it will join the South Sea Fleet. Sanya has become a major naval base on par with the three existing fleet headquarters bases in Qingdao, Ningbo and Zhanjiang.

The PLAN is a powerful force, and one has to wonder why it is prioritized by President Xi Jinping. The forecast of the US Congressional Research Service is that by 2025, China will have six SSBNs, ten nuclear-powered attack submarines, 47 diesel-electric submarines, three aircraft carriers, 52 cruisers / destroyers. , 120 frigates / corvettes, four LHDs, ten LPDs and 24 landing ship tanks (LST).

Dennis Blasko, a former US defense attache in Beijing and Hong Kong in the 1990s, said the main goal of modernizing Eastern Theater Command is to deter Taiwan. “To deter, you have to have a credible force. And they build that believable force. Again, through deterrence theory, you have to display the determination to use that force. And you do it through statements, you do it through exercises. ”

However, Blasko assessed that the PLA does not yet have the level of confidence to invade Taiwan, and certainly not the shipping industry to do so. “… At this point, I think they see having to go to war as a failure of their national strategy. They would much prefer to get whatever they want through negotiations or other forms of pressure. ”

Although the PLAN has large vessels such as LPD type 071 and LHD 075, the number of shorter range amphibious vessels such as LSTs for an over-the-beach invasion has remained largely static.

A full-scale invasion of Taiwan would be militarily and politically risky for Xi, but this calculation doesn’t apply so much to lesser action such as the capture of Taiwanese islands such as the island of Pratas or Itu Aba in the China Sea. southern. For such an action, LHDs would be an ideal platform.

With all of these new ships, which are about as sophisticated as anything the USN has, the PLAN is poised to pull its weight not just in coastal waters, but further and further afield. China has been belligerent in its treatment of others in the South China Sea, not only with its navy, but also by the Chinese Coast Guard (CCG) and the People’s Armed Forces Maritime Militia (PAFMM). Each of the latter two is the greatest force of their type in the world.

In a new report titled “Hold the Line through 2035”, published by the Baker Institute for Public Policy at Rice University, authors Gabriel Collins and Andrew Erickson argue that the United States must firmly oppose Beijing’s antics that are trying to change the status quo and trample the international community. law.

The two US academics noted, “China is arguably pushing towards … an inflection point with its increasingly aggressive actions on the East Asian coastline, including violations of space. air and maritime administration administered by Japan, the construction and subsequent militarization of the disputed reefs in the South. China Sea, harassment of oil and gas exploration operations by companies in neighboring states, and frequent use of maritime forces to harass fishermen in neighboring countries. ”

The PLAN, the CCG and the PAFMM indeed form the obvious front line of Chinese military aggression, because they benefit from heavy investments and modernization. China is also using new national regulations such as the Coast Guard Law to assert territorial jurisdiction, even though these have no international weight.

Collins and Erickson continued, “Each of these individual challenges tests the limits of the status quo, and unless there is sufficient international response, emboldens further actions to expand Chinese claims and undermine the state-led regional security architecture. United which helped secure peace for three quarters The response to China’s revisionist actions must ultimately be multilateral, but American action is the indispensable catalyst to launch the process and support the first steps when the return the flame of a People’s Republic of China (PRC) not completely slowed down will probably be the most intense. ”

The year 2021 saw warships from countries like France, Japan, Germany and the United Kingdom ply the South China Sea. This reflected greater international concern, even on the part of distant European powers, over China’s intimidating behavior. However, most countries in Southeast Asia are intimidated and overwhelmed by the power of the PLA, and only a couple like Indonesia or Vietnam are ready to resist Chinese intimidation.

Collins and Erickson made a recommendation, however. “Washington should take the lead in helping allies and partner nations (to the extent that they seek help from the United States) to positively assert their maritime rights. Partner States.

US naval forces conducted seven freedom of navigation operations vis-à-vis China in 2019. Maintaining or exceeding this pace would be “demonstrative” action to show Washington’s resolve in the face of the PRC’s excessive maritime claims. The Guard is also expected to begin engaging in “definitive” actions that affirm their readiness to tackle “on the ground” PRC activities in the South and East China Seas that violate international law. and local. ”

With the PLAN keen to test the courage of its crews amid an influx of new warships, and with the United States and others more determined to challenge China’s illegal maritime claims, the stage is set for rising tensions in the South China and East China Seas. The question is whether Chinese pride will lead to an involuntary confrontation at sea this year?

Chinese actions will not be limited to these aforementioned sea areas either, with the PLAN moving further and further away from China’s coasts. The Indian Navy, for example, will be forced to respond to a larger PLAN presence in the Indian Ocean in the coming year as well.


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Writer and journalist Krupa Ge invites readers to a world of motherly affection in his short story Amma http://gurugama.org/writer-and-journalist-krupa-ge-invites-readers-to-a-world-of-motherly-affection-in-his-short-story-amma/ Sat, 01 Jan 2022 13:36:08 +0000 http://gurugama.org/writer-and-journalist-krupa-ge-invites-readers-to-a-world-of-motherly-affection-in-his-short-story-amma/ The sea can be a cruel mistress, and a mother’s love can be blind. In her short story, writer and journalist Krupa Ge invites readers to a world of motherly affection and a marriage made in the wrong kind of paradise. 1. Mary woke up with the biggest smiles this morning.2. If you know Mary, […]]]>

The sea can be a cruel mistress, and a mother’s love can be blind. In her short story, writer and journalist Krupa Ge invites readers to a world of motherly affection and a marriage made in the wrong kind of paradise.

1. Mary woke up with the biggest smiles this morning.
2. If you know Mary, you will know why Laranse is wary of her smile.

Marie had spent all her childhood dreaming of getting the hell out of the little big fishing village, the one that housed the oldest inhabitants of the island. Its proud men and women wore it as a badge of honor, their property of both land and sea. No other people could claim what they could, they could circumvent the laws of a nation of the greatest. powerful forces that had nothing less than nuclear weapons in their possession. They had done it. No coastal law intended for others applied to them; they had established the first claim on the seas and its sands, and the proud nation had put its tail between its legs and allowed them to claim it, although at times it looked away when the navy of the not-so-friendly neighboring nation pulled their men down for trespassing in the disputed waters.

Mary wanted to live as far from the water as possible, however; wanted to wash this wet trail from her skin, her hair, her very being. She was sure of one thing, she would not marry a man who sailed. She would marry a man with a regular employment. Any job that didn’t involve waking up before the sun and crashing into the waves. It didn’t mean one day never to come back from the ocean, swallowed up by the vast empty blue, as had happened to his father; the neighbor’s warship had crashed into his small mechanized craft and drowned him in pieces.

Laranse was the kind of man who wanted to be buried at sea. Not only was he proud of his profession, but he was also mind, body and soul, in love, in love, in love with the ocean. She was the only woman he bowed to, he said, he’d heard the cheesy dialogue in a dubbed movie. About death, like his father, he didn’t care, but when he did it was only to say: When I die, I want to be cremated, not buried. I want my ashes in the sea. So I can become one with the ocean. So I can become the ocean. His day began not when he opened his eyes in the morning, but when he pushed his boat, the wind whipping his almost naked body, his feet grainy with salt and sand. And it ended with a meal of the ocean in your mouth. Their was a match made in the wrong kind of heaven. When his mother came home to ask for Mary’s hand, she had said that her son would give up sailing altogether. She had also said that he had a big job coming up at the Electricity Commission.

You can move further inland to where my brother-in-law has a house, she lied.

You old bull-headed beast, liar, Mary has run into curses, looking north to the sky, every morning, hugging, kneeling on the ground. This poor woman had no choice but to lie for her son.

Laranse had returned home one night after seeing this angel of a young girl with the green nose hairpin on the shore. She was gracefully plump, draped in a half yellow sari, her hair in a single long braid, a few scattered strands framing her face. From a distance, standing on his boat, he had seen her. Like that Kanyakumari whose nose stud guided the lost to shore, Mary had brought Laranse home. He told his mother that he would not give him heirs if they did not come from Mary’s womb. After arranging the wedding as on order, her mother passed away, to join her husband and, according to Mary, watched the entertainment from afar as the fireworks unfolded in this tiny house.

Laranse paid the price for Mary’s disappointment the very day after her marriage. As she ran out, ignorant but also smirking at the insinuations made by the virginal and rowdy neighborhood girls – who had been lying awake all night listening to the sounds of their marital bliss – he stepped out behind. she, smoking a cigarette, looking smart, her tight t-shirt hugging her muscular chest and her shorts, a little shorter than she liked, enveloped her spectacular thighs. She had assumed that her new husband had come to see her and walked over to him to stop halfway as he rushed into the sea, pushing his boat inside.

It was then that she noticed the other men with Laranse. They had all filed together. Laranse looked happy, singing, talking to the ocean, as if she was the mistress he couldn’t wait to find again; this precious mistress, Mary wanted to cry, was sure to kill him one day, as she had done with other men. Cyclones could beat them to death as governments wrung their hands, unable even to return the bodies lost to the Gulf; that miserable black wall from the tsunami could happen even when everything seemed calm; let’s say they learned, as they had done for thousands of years, to bypass distant rains, winds and earthquakes as well, how could they ever predict the routes of bullets? The sea only made her anxious and over the years every happy memory had been replaced by thoughts of death, a morbid, cruel death that straddled the waves, furious like a truck without brakes.

his new husband ignoring his mother’s promises he had gone to work for the day and when he returned with his catch Mary refused to go out and sell. You lied to me. I will have my revenge when I die. You wait and see, she said looking north, kneeling, hugging, again and again. She wouldn’t show him her anger, she hadn’t yet figured out if he was the punching type, it was too soon. So she took refuge in these imaginary reprimands. Her mother wasn’t going to come back from the grave to defend herself anyway. Laranse did not come to the aid of his mother either. He was happy in a way that he didn’t have to deal with the mess she had made.

3. So you now know why Laranse is suspicious of his new wife’s new mirth. He didn’t even go out to sea. He sat all day by the boat, smoking and drinking toddy.
Could she? Would she have? he wondered. That damn oracle ruined my head, he kicked the sand.

He was alone by the shore one weekday, waiting for the clouds to pass. And there she was out of nowhere, this woman with a wand in her hand, her hair in a bun, a giant red dot on her forehead, her face shining golden yellow, as if she had bathed in rays. morning, draped in a dark red sari. To predict his future.
You are a good young man, you are. Amma tells me that you are a good husband. A faithful man, indeed. Amma also predicts that someone who hates you all day and all night is living nearby. Be careful… don’t believe her, yes, Amma tells me it’s a woman. Don’t trust your life with this woman. She is here to get
my boy, you can’t win with her. Stay out of danger, stay out of his way.

With that and two pimps as payment, she was gone.

Krupa Ge is a Madras-based writer. She is the author of What We Know About Her (Context), which was shortlisted for the JCB Prize for Literature 2021, and Rivers Remember (Context)


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Fundsmith founder Terry Smith raises £ 150million as company posts record profits http://gurugama.org/fundsmith-founder-terry-smith-raises-150million-as-company-posts-record-profits/ Thu, 30 Dec 2021 21:50:56 +0000 http://gurugama.org/fundsmith-founder-terry-smith-raises-150million-as-company-posts-record-profits/ Fund star Terry Smith wins £ 150million: biggest salary to date for Mauritius-based stock picker as his company grows record profits By Lucy White for the Daily Mail Posted: 9:50 p.m. GMT, December 30, 2021 | Update: 22:13 GMT, December 30, 2021 Fund manager Terry Smith has pocketed an exceptional salary of up to £ […]]]>

Fund star Terry Smith wins £ 150million: biggest salary to date for Mauritius-based stock picker as his company grows record profits










Fund manager Terry Smith has pocketed an exceptional salary of up to £ 150million, making him one of the highest paid bosses in the global financial industry.

The Mauritius-based stock picker, who founded Fundsmith 11 years ago, celebrated record profits in the 12 months leading up to March 2021.

Even though its £ 22.7bn flagship Fundsmith Equity underperformed the average of its rivals during the year, the company made total profits of £ 57.7m, up from 48. £ 5million a year earlier.

Maurice-based stock picker Terry Smith (pictured), who founded Fundsmith 11 years ago, celebrated record profits in the 12 months leading up to March 2021

Fundsmith was stimulated by investors looking for a place to put money saved during foreclosure.

Over ten years, Smith’s flagship fund has been one of the UK’s leading silver producers.

Ryan Hughes, head of investment research at AJ Bell, said the cash flow to Fundsmith helped drive strong earnings.

He said: “While the size of these rewards may raise eyebrows, investors tend to be quite optimistic about it as performance remains very strong and they feel they share success.”

In the year to March 2021, Fundsmith Equity would have turned £ 1,000 into £ 1,318 – although this is less than the £ 1,451 made by the average global sector fund of the Investment Association.

Since its launch in 2010, however, it has blasted rivals out of the water, turning £ 1,000 into £ 6,722, up from an industry average of £ 3,543.

Hughes said: “I am sure investors will still be happy with over 20% growth for the year.”

The biggest holdings in Fundsmith Equity include Microsoft, L’Oréal and Paypal. Smith also manages several other funds, including Sustainable Equity and the Smithson and Emerging Equities investment funds.

Smith, 68, pocketed just over 60% of the £ 57.7million in profit Fundsmith generated during the year. The rest was shared among the other owners of Fundsmith.

But he also sent £ 188.1million in “fees” to an opaque company in Mauritius, Fundsmith Investment Services Ltd (FISL) of which Smith is also the majority owner.

He does not make his accounts public and a spokesperson declined to comment on the use of the £ 188.1million.

But Smith could have pocketed as much as 61%, bringing his total salary to £ 150.4million. It is understood that the sum is unlikely to be this large as part of the money sent to FISL was spent on services such as research, administration and accounting.

Ben Yearsley, Director of Shore Financial Planning, said: “In a way, I have no problem with what Terry Smith is getting paid. He has built a very successful business. But I don’t like the secrecy surrounding the Mauritian structure.

Yearsley added that Fundsmith Equity was also relatively expensive in terms of the “ongoing charges” that savers have to pay.

Smith, the son of a London truck driver, made his name in the 1980s as a banking analyst before getting into controversy at brokerage BZW, urging investors to sell shares in his parent company , Barclays.

In the 1990s, while working for Swiss investment bank UBS, he wrote a bestselling book about dirty accounting tricks used to make troubled companies look like they were successful, for which UBS wrote. dismissed.

The Brexit-backed father-of-two then took over stockbroker Collins Stewart, merging him to create Tullett Prebon. He traveled to Mauritius in the Indian Ocean in 2014, to escape the noise and routine of the city.


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Amara Raja invests in InoBat Auto http://gurugama.org/amara-raja-invests-in-inobat-auto/ Wed, 29 Dec 2021 07:26:57 +0000 http://gurugama.org/amara-raja-invests-in-inobat-auto/ Amara Raja Batteries Limited has announced its intention to invest in InoBat Auto, which will give Amara Raja a key foothold in the European electric vehicle ecosystem, where several battery giga factories are being installed. Amara Raja Batteries Limited has announced its intention to invest in InoBat Auto, a European technology developer and manufacturer of […]]]>

Amara Raja Batteries Limited has announced its intention to invest in InoBat Auto, which will give Amara Raja a key foothold in the European electric vehicle ecosystem, where several battery giga factories are being installed.

Amara Raja Batteries Limited has announced its intention to invest in InoBat Auto, a European technology developer and manufacturer of batteries for electric mobility. The initial investment will give Amara Raja a key foothold in the European electric vehicle ecosystem, where several gigabyte battery factories are being installed to support the region’s determined electric vehicle push, including in the United Kingdom, which sees a growing need to meet the growing demand for electricity. Vehicles.

This investment will significantly enable Amara Raja, who laid out his ambitions in the green technology space as part of his bold “Energy and Mobility” strategy earlier this year, to access expertise that will help deploy technologies required for manufacturing batteries for E-mobility applications. The investment will open up new avenues of R&D for the company while allowing it to adapt InoBat battery technology to the markets Amara Raja already serves.

InoBat specializes in the research, development, manufacture and supply of innovative high-end electric batteries custom designed to meet the specific requirements of customers in the automotive, utility vehicle, motorsport and automotive industries. aerospace. By adopting a “cradle-to-cradle” strategy within a responsible ESG framework, InoBat aims to pilot the implementation of electric mobility solutions.

InoBat is currently developing a battery research and development center and production line in Voderady, Slovakia. The next phase of the project will focus on scaling up manufacturing across multiple gigafactories planned across Europe and around the world. It is supported by various partners including CEZ, one of the main European public services and Rio Tinto, the global mining giant, which have invested in the company.

Vikram Gourineni, Executive Director of Amara Raja Batteries, said: “We are delighted to announce our investment in InoBat. InoBat has proven its ability to develop innovative battery technologies in a short period of time. Its “cradle-to-cradle” approach supports Amara Raja’s own sustainability goals and will help reduce long-term dependence on the import of essential raw materials. “

He added: “The combination of our respective strengths will enable Amara Raja to gain a foothold in the growing global market for electric vehicles. Together we will explore future opportunities to adapt the advanced battery technology developed by InoBat to the markets served by Amara Raja. We believe that this technology can significantly move things forward and accelerate India’s ambitions for electric vehicles.

Marian Bocek, CEO of InoBat Auto, said: “Today’s announcement is strategically important for InoBat and its planned gigafactories in various regions of Europe. It shows that unique collaborative partnerships are essential to advance the adoption of electric mobility solutions globally, including in emerging markets. In addition, it paves the way for our future expansion and the application of our own “cradle to cradle” approach.

He added, “We are delighted to partner with Amara Raja, who has built a successful business and has demonstrated experience in introducing contemporary energy storage technologies over the years into emerging markets in geographic areas of. Indian Ocean. We are committed to working together to create the most efficient and economical batteries possible to help deliver a sustainable future for all. “

Financial Express is now on Telegram. Click here to join our channel and stay up to date with the latest news and updates from Biz.


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Bangladesh economy will be 24th in 2036, CEBR says http://gurugama.org/bangladesh-economy-will-be-24th-in-2036-cebr-says/ Mon, 27 Dec 2021 11:33:22 +0000 http://gurugama.org/bangladesh-economy-will-be-24th-in-2036-cebr-says/ Engineers install the final span of the 6.15 km long Padma Multipurpose Bridge on December 10, 2020 Mehedi Hasan / Dhaka Tribune This would represent an increase of 18 places in the ranking over the next 14 years. The Center for Economics and Business Research (CEBR) has predicted that Bangladesh is expected to claim the […]]]>

Engineers install the final span of the 6.15 km long Padma Multipurpose Bridge on December 10, 2020 Mehedi Hasan / Dhaka Tribune

This would represent an increase of 18 places in the ranking over the next 14 years.

The Center for Economics and Business Research (CEBR) has predicted that Bangladesh is expected to claim the crown of the world’s 24th economy within 14 years, according to a report released on Sunday.

This would represent a gain of 18 places in the standings.

The CEBR, one of the UK’s leading economic consultancies, also predicted in its annual World Economic League table that Bangladesh would likely rise a notch in 2022 to rank 41st on the 191 list. country.

In addition, the country is expected to reach 34th place in 2026, 29th position in 2031 and finally 24th position in 2036.

The London-based think-tank said that previously Bangladesh held the 58th, 59th and 46th positions in 2006, 2011 and 2016, respectively, indicating an upward trend in economic performance and steady growth.


Read also – 50 years of Bangladesh: from “basket” to “development miracle”


“In 2021, Bangladesh is estimated to have a PPP adjusted GDP per capita of $ 5,733 and is classified as a lower middle income country. Before the start of the Covid-19 pandemic, per capita incomes were on an upward trajectory, due to a robust rate of economic expansion paired with a low rate of population growth, which averaged just 1 , 0% per year between 2016 and 2021, ”the report reads.

Bangladesh has been one of the fastest growing economies in the world over the past decade due to a number of factors, the report adds.

“It benefits from a demographic dividend, as the proportion of its working-age population exceeds that of the inactive. In addition, strong international demand for its ready-to-wear clothes [RMG] strengthened export revenues, against a background of stable macroeconomic conditions, ”CEBR said.

These conditions, together with a competent workforce, skilled in information and communication technologies, have enabled it to attract a significant volume of investment from foreign companies in its telecommunications industry.

In addition, its strategic location allows easy access to trade with southwest China via the Indian Ocean; this has prompted China to invest heavily in the Bangladeshi economy in recent years, the CEBR noted.

“Bangladesh’s economy grew 3.5% in 2020 – a rare achievement by international standards. This can be largely attributed to a relatively low incidence of the coronavirus in 2020, allowing economic activity to maintain some form of normalcy, ”the report says.

According to the CEBR, large inflows of remittances, as well as a rebound in exports, also contributed to the growth of the economy during the year.

“However, the emergence of the ‘Delta’ variant has taken its toll in Bangladesh, with around 16,000 cases at its peak. Nonetheless, the economy accelerated in 2021, with 4.6% growth expected this year, although this is well below the pre-pandemic growth rates achieved by the economy, ”the report said. .

The CEBR added that in mid-December 2021, the Covid-19 death rate in Bangladesh was generally low compared to most countries around the world, with less than 17 deaths per 100,000 population recorded since the start. of the pandemic.

More than half (52.4%) of residents have received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine, signaling that the country’s vaccination campaign is on track by global standards. Overall, however, the share of the total population that has been fully immunized is well below 26.6%.

The government recorded a budget deficit of 5.9% in 2021, facilitated in part by the low debt-to-GDP ratio, noted the CEBR, adding that: “This should have supported the economy in recent months. However, the economy faces multiple obstacles to its medium and long term prospects. ”


Read also – Why run after higher growth rates if even retail can do more for the same?


The centers suggested that Bangladesh diversify its exports beyond the RMG sector, as the world moves towards a goal of net zero emissions, it would be wise for Bangladesh to follow suit and incorporate sustainable practices into its production processes. .

Filling the infrastructure gaps would also reduce the disparities in opportunity between geographic regions, thereby boosting economic growth, he added.

India ranks first in the South Asian region since the report’s first edition was released in 2009, and is expected to become the third-largest economy by 2031.

Bangladesh is currently the region’s second-largest economy, according to the report, and will continue to maintain its position until 2036 with a GDP of $ 884 billion at constant prices (currently $ 325 billion).

Pakistan (46th) occupies third position, followed by Sri Lanka (69th), Nepal (99th), Maldives (154th) and Bhutan (164th) in South Asia.

The United States (1st), China (2nd), and Japan (3rd) are currently the top three economies in the world, and China is predicted to become the largest over the next decade.


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Christmas is in the air – TV channels http://gurugama.org/christmas-is-in-the-air-tv-channels/ Sat, 25 Dec 2021 18:05:20 +0000 http://gurugama.org/christmas-is-in-the-air-tv-channels/ It’s Christmas season, a time to celebrate with loved ones and to share the joys of life. This week’s photos, compiled by channeltv.comSodiq Adelakun’s photo editor tries to capture the Christmas spirit. Two goats are seen on a bus heading south-eastern Nigeria to Abuja-Keffi Park ahead of the Christmas holidays in Abuja on December 24, […]]]>

It’s Christmas season, a time to celebrate with loved ones and to share the joys of life. This week’s photos, compiled by channeltv.comSodiq Adelakun’s photo editor tries to capture the Christmas spirit.

Two goats are seen on a bus heading south-eastern Nigeria to Abuja-Keffi Park ahead of the Christmas holidays in Abuja on December 24, 2021. Photo: Sodiq Adelakun.

People prepare to spend Christmas Eve sleeping in a makeshift IDP camp at Mukuru Kwa Njenga in Nairobi on December 24, 2021. – Thousands of people in the informal settlement of Mukuru Kwa Njenga have seen their homes demolished without warning in November 2021, to make way for a toll road known as the Nairobi Expressway. (Photo by Ed Ram / AFP)

Civil Defense volunteers help pull a car out of flood waters following heavy rains at Muno market in Sungai Kolok district, Narathiwat province, southern Thailand, December 20, 2021 . – (Photo by Madaree TOHLALA / AFP)

Mahouts and their elephants pose for the children during Christmas celebrations at Jirasart Witthaya School in Ayutthaya on December 24, 2021. (Photo by Jack TAYLOR / AFP)

Jose Ivanildo da Silva, a disabled Brazilian sitting on a skateboard, asks for help with his family and projects for children in need dressed as Santa Claus in Brasilia, December 23, 2021 (Photo by Sergio Lima / AFP)

A Palestinian protester throws a burning tire at Israeli security forces during clashes following a protest against the return of Jewish settlers to their neighborhood in the village of Burqah in the occupied West Bank, near the outpost illegal Israeli from Homesh, December 23, 2021. – Palestinian men are suspected by the IDF of firing at least 10 bullets at a car on December 16, killing Yehuda Dimentman, a 25-year-old religious student and injuring two comrades as they exited Homesh, an illegal outpost in Northwest Bank. (Photo by JAAFAR ASHTIYEH / AFP)

A pastor speaks to people whose homes were demolished as they prepare to spend Christmas Eve sleeping in a makeshift IDP camp at Mukuru Kwa Njenga in Nairobi on December 24, 2021. – Thousands of People in the informal Mukuru Kwa Njenga neighborhood saw their homes demolished without warning in November 2021, to make way for the construction of a toll road known as the Nairobi Expressway. (Photo by Ed Ram / AFP)

A woman kisses a man dressed as Santa Claus during a Christmas meal distribution organized by the NGO Central Única das Favelas (CUFA) in the slum area of ​​Penha Complex, commonly known as Alemao Complex, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on December 23, 2021. – A total of 1,500 Chirstima meals were distributed as part of this action. (Photo by DANIEL RAMALHO / AFP)

A child runs towards Mohamed Maarouf, 28, as he walks with a bag of gifts while dressed in a Saint Nicholas (Father Christmas) costume in a slum near the center of the city of Basra, in the south of the ‘Iraq, December 24, 2021 (Photo by Hussein FALEH / AFP)

Mohamed Maarouf, 28, walks with a bag of gifts in Saint Nicholas (Father Christmas) costume in a slum near the center of the city of Basra in southern Iraq on December 24, 2021 (Photo by Hussein FALEH / AFP)

People take photos of a giant Christmas tree at Christmas in the West Kowloon Cultural District in Hong Kong on December 25, 2021. (Photo by Bertha WANG / AFP)

People look at the boxes of expired AstraZeneca Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine destroyed at the Gosa landfill in Abuja, Nigeria on December 22, 2021. According to the National Agency for Administration and Control Food and Drug Administration (NAFDAC) Along with the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA), one million sixty-six thousand two hundred and fourteen (1,066,214) doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine that expired in November have been destroyed. Photo: Sodiq Adelakun

Planes from the Italian Air Force’s aerobatic unit Frecce Tricolori (tricolor arrows) spray smoke in the colors of the Italian flag as they perform over Alta Badia in the Dolomites, on December 19, 2021 as part of the men’s giant slalom event at the FIS Ski World Cup. (Photo by Tiziana FABI / AFP)

Supporters of Chilean President-elect Gabriel Boric celebrate after the official results of the second round of the presidential election in Santiago on December 19, 2021. – With more than 99% of the ballots counted, left-wing lawmaker Gabriel Boric, 35 , became the youngest Chilean president in history at the top with 55.86 percent against 44 percent for his far-right rival Jose Antonio Kast, the Servel website reported, with a star to indicate the winner. (Photo by MAURO PIMENTEL / AFP)

Arianespace’s Ariane 5 rocket with NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope on board rises from the launch pad at the European Spaceport, the Guyanese Space Center in Kourou, French Guiana, December 25, 2021. – The telescope, the most powerful space observatory ever built, is now tentatively scheduled for launch on Christmas Day, after decades of waiting. A marvel of engineering, it will help answer fundamental questions about the Universe, going back 13 billion years. (Photo by jody amiet / AFP)

Olimpia supporters celebrate after winning the Honduran Football League after defeating Real Espana at Morazan Stadium in San Pedro Sula, Honduras on December 23, 2021. (Photo by Orlando SIERRA / AFP)

Freedivers dressed in Saint Nicholas (Father Christmas) costumes pose for a photo as they are submerged underwater off the coast of the northern Lebanese city of Batroun on Christmas Eve, the 24th. December 2021. (Photo by Ibrahim CHALHOUB / AFP

A Palestinian dressed as Santa Claus gestures as he rides a camel in Jerusalem’s Old City during Christmas celebrations on December 23, 2021. (Photo by AHMAD GHARABLI / AFP)

TOPSHOT – A climber dressed as Santa Claus descends a building of a pediatric clinic in Ljubljana on December 22, 2021. (Photo by Jure Makovec / AFP)

Migrants heading in a caravan to the United States wait for buses at the “Pilgrim’s House San Juan Diego” in Mexico City on December 22, 2021. – Migrants from Central America will be transported to the cities of Monterrey, Juarez and Hermosillo. There, with the help of the authorities of the National Migration Institute, they can continue with their immigration procedures and can wait to enter the United States. (Photo by ALFREDO ESTRELLA / AFP)

This aerial photograph taken on December 22, 2021 shows the eruption of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on Reunion Island, in the French Indian Ocean. – The Piton de la Fournaise, the volcano in Réunion, erupted for the second time of the year on December 22 at 3:30 a.m. (12:30 p.m. in Paris), indicates the volcanological observatory. At least three eruptive cracks have opened on the southern flank of the volcano within the enclosure (the volcano’s central caldera), vulcanologists noted. The eruption takes place in a completely uninhabited area. (Photo by Richard BOUHET / AFP)

Chilean President-elect Gabriel Boric waves to his supporters after delivering a speech in Santiago on December 19, 2021. Right-wing rival in a polarizing race. Boric, 35, collected nearly 56% of the vote against 44% for the ultra-conservative José Antonio Kast, who congratulated the “president-elect” on Twitter even before the final result was known. (Photo by MARTIN BERNETTI / AFP)

Aerial view showing indigenous people burying the victims of a weekend massacre that took place in the nearby village of Chiquix, at the municipal cemetery of Chiquisis, in the municipality of Santa Catarina Ixtahuacan, Guatemala, on December 20, 2021. – Thirteen people, including four children, were killed in the attack, part of a long-standing land dispute between members of the K’iche Mayan community from the neighboring municipalities of Nahuala and Santa Catarina Ixtahaucan. (Photo by Carlos ALONZO / AFP)

An aerobatic team performs over Qatar’s capital, Doha, as the Gulf State celebrates its national day on December 18, 2021. – Qatar marks the anniversary of the unification of the United Nations on December 18 each year. tribes of the country in 1878, also known as “Founders Day”. (Photo by AFP)

A man sits on the hood of a car as he waits to be evacuated by a rescue team in Shah Alam, Selangor on December 20, 2021, as Malaysia faces some of its worst flooding in decades. years. (Photo by Arif KARTONO / AFP)

This photo taken on December 20, 2021 shows a view of a rainbow in the sky over the Israeli settlement of Eli, south of Nablus in the occupied West Bank. (Photo by JAAFAR ASHTIYEH / AFP)

Farmers shout slogans as they block train tracks at a protest demanding compensation and jobs for the families of those who died in protests against central government agricultural reforms and other economic problems in the village by Devi Dasspura on the outskirts of Amritsar on December 20, 2021. (Photo by NARINDER NANU / AFP)

A man clings to barriers while waiting to be evacuated by a rescue team in Shah Alam, Selangor, on December 20, 2021, as Malaysia faces some of its worst flooding in years. (Photo by Arif KARTONO / AFP)

A man mourns the coffin of one of those killed in the village of Chiquix, during a ceremony in Santa Catarina Ixtahuacan, Guatemala, on December 20, 2021. – At least 13 people have been killed in western Guatemala, including women, children and a police officer, in a long-standing land dispute between indigenous villages, police said on Saturday. (Photo by Johan ORDONEZ / AFP)
Supporters of the Trinamool Congress (TMC) celebrate the party’s victory in the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) election near the residence of West Bengal Indian Chief Minister and TMC leader Mamata Banerjee in Calcutta on December 21 2021. (Photo by DIBYANGSHU SARKAR / AFP)

Red Cross volunteers board a United Nations Mission in DR Congo (MONUSCO) armored vehicle to protect themselves from bullets in an attack by Codeco militiamen as they attempt to bury the bodies of those killed in Dhedja on December 19, 2021, 60 kilometers from Bunia, the provincial capital of Ituri in the northeast of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. – Since the end of November, at least 100 people have been killed by militiamen in this area. Due to insecurity and the presence of militiamen, no one was able to bury the bodies in Dhedja. For two years, thousands of armed men in the Ituri hills have attacked villages, IDP camps and military positions on behalf of the Cooperative for the Development of Congo, Codeco, an armed group structured around a religious sect. They claim to defend the interests of the Lendu tribe against the army and the Hema tribe. (Photo by ALEXIS HUGUET / AFP)

An airport worker walks through the rubble of a building destroyed in a Saudi-led coalition airstrike targeting the international airport in Sana’a, the Yemeni capital held by the Houthi rebels, on 21 December 2021. (Photo by MOHAMMED HUWAIS / AFP)

Babalawo Abel Ramirez (left) holds a Yoruba -ethny from sub-Saharan Africa- ceremony to feed the Earth alongside parents and godchildren in Havana on December 20, 2021. – Access to food is a spinal problem in Cuba. As parliament discusses how to produce more, a Yoruba believer makes offerings to Mother Earth in search of abundance and health. (Photo by YAMIL LAGE / AFP)

A family displays signs as they beg for alms along a highway in Surigao town, Surigao del Norte province, on December 25, 2021, more than a week after Super Typhoon Rai struck devastated the province. (Photo by Ferdinandh CABRERA / AFP)


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Worst vacation ever, with seasickness, hallucinations and determined hookers http://gurugama.org/worst-vacation-ever-with-seasickness-hallucinations-and-determined-hookers/ Thu, 23 Dec 2021 16:17:00 +0000 http://gurugama.org/worst-vacation-ever-with-seasickness-hallucinations-and-determined-hookers/ Still, at least it was worth it when we got to Zanzibar, wasn’t it? Well, it is certainly a beautiful island, its capital Stone Town a tangle of fairy tales of tiny alleyways and sultan palaces, its northern shores and is an unspoiled Indian Ocean idyll where (at least) it doesn there was no electricity […]]]>

Still, at least it was worth it when we got to Zanzibar, wasn’t it? Well, it is certainly a beautiful island, its capital Stone Town a tangle of fairy tales of tiny alleyways and sultan palaces, its northern shores and is an unspoiled Indian Ocean idyll where (at least) it doesn there was no electricity and a fisherman wandered over to you as you ate your mango breakfast to ask him what you wanted him to catch you for lunch. But – without my glasses now, remember – those delightful beaches were deadly, and I soon waded the wrong way and onto a sea urchin, whose tips snapped in my foot and forced that quick give up, even five days later, of our discomfort. accursed attempt on Kilimanjaro, back on the Tanzanian mainland.

After that we returned to Nairobi, where these ladies of the night, absolutely undeterred by Ellie’s presence, tried to approach me at every bar and club we visited. And then – unrelated, I promise – there was the moment when I attempted to assassinate my main pressure.

The antimalarial drug I was taking, Lariam, was apparently well known for its mind-altering effects, but that reads all the fine print on those folded pieces of paper in the box, right? If I had done it, I would have known that the pills “can cause paranoia, hallucinations, severe anxiety, yada yada…”). And, of course, one night I became convinced that Ellie was the embodiment of all evil, a walking satanic avatar form indeed, and that she needed to be destroyed.


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In Sri Lanka, fishermen report drastic decline of elusive radius http://gurugama.org/in-sri-lanka-fishermen-report-drastic-decline-of-elusive-radius/ Tue, 21 Dec 2021 20:25:46 +0000 http://gurugama.org/in-sri-lanka-fishermen-report-drastic-decline-of-elusive-radius/ In the waters off Sri Lanka, the numbers of sawfish, a rare and globally endangered group of marine rays, have declined so much that the animal is now considered “functionally extinct”. The discovery, taken from a study by Rima Jabado, a member of Pew Marine, in the August 2021 issue of the journal Aquatic conservation: […]]]>

In the waters off Sri Lanka, the numbers of sawfish, a rare and globally endangered group of marine rays, have declined so much that the animal is now considered “functionally extinct”. The discovery, taken from a study by Rima Jabado, a member of Pew Marine, in the August 2021 issue of the journal Aquatic conservation: marine and freshwater ecosystems, urged lawmakers to explore measures to protect the sawfish remaining in the country.

Jabado and his colleagues at Blue Resources Trust, a Sri Lankan nongovernmental organization, interviewed more than 300 fishermen and fish traders to investigate the distribution, species diversity and health of Sri Lankan sawfish populations. Named for their saw-shaped muzzle, sawfish are a type of stingray whose skeleton is mostly made up of cartilage. And like many species of sharks and rays, these animals are targeted for their fins, which can fetch high prices in the marine life trade.

“Our aim was to gather information on the state of sawfish in Sri Lanka by interviewing fishermen from coastal communities, as they are very likely to have first-hand knowledge of these rare species,” said Jabado, who received a Pew Marine Fellowship in 2019 for his research on the operation of sea guitars and chocks. “Watching the decline of rare or elusive species can be difficult, in part because even when populations are healthy, they are rarely encountered in the wild. “

Once abundant in many parts of the world, the five living sawfish species are now listed as either Endangered or Critically Endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. These species, which are among the largest fish in the sea, mature slowly and have few descendants, making them particularly vulnerable to human exploitation. Once reduced, sawfish populations can take decades to rebuild.

Sawfish species have been recorded in Sri Lanka for over a century, but no studies to assess their status in the country have been carried out so far. Research in other Indian Ocean countries has revealed drastic population declines over the past decades, likely the result of targeted fishing, accidental entanglement in fishing gear – known as bycatch – and habitat loss due to dredging, pollution and coastal development.

Blue Resources Trust team member Sahan Thilakaratna collects data on the sea guitar at a landing site.
Buddhi Maheshika
Blue Resources Trust

Documenting decades of decline

To fill this knowledge gap, Jabado and his colleagues conducted interviews at 21 sites around the Sri Lankan coastline, asking fishermen for information on the frequency and seasonality of sawfish sightings, types of fishing gear. used and the value of sawfish meat or fins. Respondents were also asked about the local names of individual sawfish species and their perceptions of the animals’ cultural significance.

“We found strong evidence for the decline of sawfish populations in Sri Lanka, with knowledge of sawfish increasing with the age of study participants,” Jabado said.

Coastal fishermen work on their nets while a worker interviews one of them.

Blue Resources Trust team member Buddhi Maheshika interviews an inshore fisherman.
Sahan Thilakaratna
Blue Resources Trust

No respondent aged 20 to 29 could identify sawfish from illustrations or reported seeing them in the wild. Conversely, all respondents aged 70 to 79 were able to identify and have seen the animals. The median year in which sawfish were last observed by respondents was 1992, indicating that population declines date back several decades.

The team also found that the language provided historical information about the distribution of sawfish species. Although researchers could not confirm the presence of a single species from photographs and dried specimens, study respondents from northern Sri Lanka provided local names for two different types of sawfish, a finding consistent with older checklists indicating two species of sawfish in the area.

The authors of the study attribute the decline of the sawfish in Sri Lanka to a combination of factors, primarily the fishery, which suddenly intensified in the 1950s in concert with a rapidly expanding fishery and peaked in the years 1980. Researchers also cite the expansion of the aquaculture industry, which can degrade or destroy mangrove forests and pollute lagoons and estuaries, all key habitats and nursery areas for sawfish. Aquaculture production in Sri Lanka developed in the 1970s and peaked in 1998, coinciding with the estimated period of sawfish decline.

Linking politics to science

In a good example of informative research on environmental management, Jabado and the Blue Resources Trust team presented the study evidence to decision makers at Sri Lanka’s Fisheries Ministry and worked with them to implement lists of local species of beveled fish and giant guitars under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, including the development of non-detriment findings ( ACNP). NDFs assess whether international trade in a given species is likely to negatively affect its survival. In the case of the beveled fish and the giant sea guitar, a negative NDF would be tantamount to a ban on the export of meat or fins from Sri Lanka.

“Collaborative studies like this help highlight the realities of our shark and ray populations in Sri Lanka,” said Daniel Fernando, Founder of Blue Resources Trust. “And armed with this information, we can guide policymakers to implement management that will reduce pressures on threatened sharks and rays. ”

In collaboration with Blue Resources Trust, Jabado organized several workshops in Sri Lanka to train more than 60 fisheries managers in the identification of guitar rays and bison fins (the other two groups of species at the center of his project. Pew scholarship) and works with policymakers. recommend the ban on sawfish fishing in the country. Since there are so few sawfish left, the regulations are unlikely to have a significant impact on fishermen.

“I welcome the commitment of policymakers on this issue to give the remaining sawfish, sawfish and guitarfish a better chance of survival,” Jabado said. “The lessons we learn from protecting this group of species will also be useful in guiding the future scientific management of sharks and rays.”

Polita Glynn is Project Director and Nathan Fedrizzi is Senior Associate of the Pew Fellows Program in Marine Conservation.


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ADS Advance – French Bee takes delivery of its first A350-1000 http://gurugama.org/ads-advance-french-bee-takes-delivery-of-its-first-a350-1000/ Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:04:54 +0000 http://gurugama.org/ads-advance-french-bee-takes-delivery-of-its-first-a350-1000/ in Aeronautics Posted on December 20, 2021 add a comment French Bee – the low-cost long-haul airline (member of the Dubreuil Group) based in France – has taken delivery of its first A350-1000, leased by Air Lease Corporation, to join its fleet and make the company a full A350 fleet operator. Above: Air Caraïbes and […]]]>
in Aeronautics

Posted on December 20, 2021 add a comment

French Bee – the low-cost long-haul airline (member of the Dubreuil Group) based in France – has taken delivery of its first A350-1000, leased by Air Lease Corporation, to join its fleet and make the company a full A350 fleet operator.

Above:
Air Caraïbes and French bee A350-1000.


Copyright Airbus

The aircraft is the first of two A350-1000s to be operated by the carrier on the route from Paris to Saint Denis de La Réunion in the Indian Ocean.

The A350-1000 will complement the four A350-900s already present in the French bee fleet, offering the airline unparalleled operational flexibility and eco-efficient solutions for its network.

The aircraft has 480 seats divided into two classes (40 in premium class and 440 in economy class), offering all the comfort and amenities of the Airbus Airspace cabin, including state-of-the-art inflight entertainment (IFE) for passengers. passengers. and full WiFi connectivity throughout the cabin. The A350 cabin is also the quietest of all two-aisle aircraft.

The A350-1000, Airbus’ largest widebody in the twin-engine category, features the latest aerodynamic design, carbon fiber fuselage and wings, as well as new Rolls-Royce engines Trent XWB-97 fuel efficient, allowing the airline to fly for a long time. transport destinations up to 16,000 km (8,700 nm).
Together, these elements result in unmatched levels of operational efficiency with 25% less fuel consumption and CO2 emissions and a 50% reduction in noise.

At the same time, the Dubreuil group also takes delivery of another A350-1000 leased from Air Lease Corporation (NYSE: AL) intended for Air Caraïbes, bringing the number of Airbus planes in the group’s fleet to 15.

By the end of November 2021, the A350 Family had received 913 firm orders from 49 customers around the world.


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The rampart of New Delhi in the Indian Ocean – The Diplomat http://gurugama.org/the-rampart-of-new-delhi-in-the-indian-ocean-the-diplomat/ Sat, 18 Dec 2021 05:56:57 +0000 http://gurugama.org/the-rampart-of-new-delhi-in-the-indian-ocean-the-diplomat/ Advertising In 2015, the Indian government drew up a 100,000 million Indian Rupee plan funded by the Ministry of Navigation and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Administration to transform the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (ANI) into the country’s premier maritime hub. In 2018, Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited the islands for the first time, inaugurating […]]]>

In 2015, the Indian government drew up a 100,000 million Indian Rupee plan funded by the Ministry of Navigation and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Administration to transform the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (ANI) into the country’s premier maritime hub. In 2018, Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited the islands for the first time, inaugurating several development projects related to connectivity, energy and tourism, among others. More recently, it inaugurated the Chennai-Andaman and Nicobar Underwater Internet Cable, which is expected to provide high-speed Internet connection to seven remote islands on the ANI channel.

The islands have also seen the recent installation of 31 powerful GPS motion sensors and accelerometers, SMS alert broadcast systems, 13 automated weather stations, state emergency operations centers and the commissioning of ‘a solar power station in Attam Pahad. The Indian government, as part of NITI Aayog’s ‘Holistic Development Program’ for the Islands, has called on global players to invest in a broad social and infrastructure development program, including investments in resorts and resorts. ‘other tourist infrastructure.

These developments show how New Delhi is fortifying its southernmost border at sea and preparing for something bigger. As the Indo-Pacific region with its growing importance becomes a theater of opportunity for India, ANI has gained an important position in New Delhi’s foreign policy.

Strategic location

In January 2016, New Delhi released a Maritime Security Strategy Paper that emphasized the islands’ strategic importance and underlined their importance to India’s projection of power in the Western Pacific and beyond.

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The ANI Channel, located next to the western entrance to the Straits of Malacca, straddles one of the busiest shipping routes in the world. Containing about 30 percent of India’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), ANI connects South Asia to South East Asia. The northernmost point of this archipelago is only 22 nautical miles from Myanmar and the southernmost point, Indira Point, is only 90 nautical miles from Indonesia.

In a 2017 analysis, Balaji Chandramohan pointed out that the Andaman and Nicobar Islands “dominate the Bay of Bengal, the six-degree and ten-degree channels that more than sixty thousand commercial vessels pass each year.” Chandramohan further noted that the islands act as “a physical barrier that secures busy sea lines of communication by creating a series of choke points: the Preparis Channel to the north, the Ten Degree Channel between the Andaman Island groups. and Nicobar and the Six Degree Canal to the south. While the first two sea lanes are seldom used by commercial shipping, all ships crossing the Strait of Malacca must pass through the Six Degree Channel.

China: the factor behind India’s ANI fortification

Writing for the Observer Research Foundation in September 2021, Sohini Bose and Anasua Basu Ray Chaudhury argued that “China’s efforts to expand its footprint in the IOR to overcome its” Malacca dilemma “(fear of China of a maritime blockade in the Strait of Malacca “) and to achieve its ambitions of” Maritime Silk Road “have fueled apprehensions about the freedom of navigation in these waters. “

As part of China’s growing presence, the Economic Times reported in January 2020 that six Chinese research vessels had been spotted in the IOR in a single month and that nearly 600 Chinese fishing vessels were present here each. year from 2015 to 2019. In January 2021, a Chinese investigative vessel, the Xiang Yang Hong 03, was accused of “darkening” (operating without transmitting its position) in Indonesian waters. This ship was heading for the Indian Ocean.

In April this year, during the Raisina Dialogue, former Indian Navy Chief Admiral Karambir Singh said New Delhi had observed the regular presence of the Chinese Navy in the IOR over the past decade. China’s accelerated naval modernization, with more than 80 ships commissioned in the past five years, reflects its aspirations to embrace maritime hegemony in the Indo-Pacific region, including the IOR.

A retired Indian Navy Commodore official, who wished to remain anonymous, said: “The strategic importance of ANI is primarily due to China’s growing presence and involvement in the Indian Ocean region. He added, “China’s interest in the IOR is driven by its strategy of expanding its influence beyond the Pacific and South China Sea, which has sparked a demand for strategic bases in the region.

Given the growing Chinese presence in the Indo-Pacific, the officer listed two consequences one might expect in the region. First, by gaining ground on these critical choke points, China could use them to its advantage in a future conflict or stalemate with India. Second, a counterweight from the Indian Navy is to be expected, notably through the increased deployment of anti-submarine warfare planes in the ANI.

ANI and security collaborations

To counter China’s attempts to expand its footprint in this region, riparian countries, as well as world powers, are engaging in security collaboration near ANI to ensure free movement in surrounding waters. .

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The Japanese-American SOSUS (Sound Surveillance System, a chain of sensors designed to track submarines) will hit ANI, creating a counter-wall against Chinese submarines lurking in the Andaman Sea and the American Sea. Deep southern China. This will be a crucial collaboration, as Japan will share intelligence with the UK, Australia and India.

In addition, the development of a transhipment port at Great Nicobar, which will be located near the Strait of Malacca and the East-West sea route linking Europe and Africa to Asia, is underway. Considering its proximity, it could become a preferred choice for countries like Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand and Indonesia. As the Observer Research Foundation (ORF) comments, “This gives [Grand Nicobar] the potential to serve as an alternative transshipment facility in the region; a share of even five percent of the total maritime traffic in this region will be lucrative for India. “

To improve the connectivity and importance of the islands, New Delhi has entered into a number of international partnerships. The Thai government’s plan to connect its port of Ranong to ANI could be an important development. In 2018, India and Indonesia, as part of their “Shared Vision for Indo-Indonesian Maritime Cooperation in the Indo-Pacific”, created a special working group to develop connectivity between the port of Sabang and ANI.

India could also use the developing ANI facilities for humanitarian aid and disaster relief. Radhika Ajayan, South Pacific Environmental Security Researcher, said: “From a climate security perspective, India’s use of smart energy through humanitarian assistance and disaster relief activities. disaster event (HADR) is enjoyed around the world, which China has failed to do in the past and suffered [for] (his late response during Typhoon Haiyan 2013). She further added that most countries in Southeast Asia are part of the “ring of fire”, which makes them more vulnerable to frequent natural disasters. A strong naval presence at ANI will make India a reliable partner in times of crisis.

India’s defense push at ANI

When Modi inaugurated the first submarine fiber optic project at ANI, he also hinted at a Rs100 billion investment plan for the islands. In northern Andaman, a Naval Air Station (NAS) Shibpur was commissioned as INS Kohassa, and in the Grand Nicobar in Campbell Bay, INS Baaz, a naval air station, was converted into a base. aviation. In his article, Chandramohan predicts that the ANI “could also be the base for elements of the Army’s special forces and naval commandos, the Marcos, an SU-30 MKI all-weather fighter squadron and a maritime squadron. Jaguar permanently. “India has already deployed long-range patrol planes, including the Poseidon-8I Neptune, to its forward military base in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

The appointment of former Indian Navy Chief Admiral DK Joshi as Lieutenant Governor of the Islands in October 2017 was a crucial development, allowing for a better understanding of the potential and the security, economic and trade limits of the island development.

A “no-sea” naval warfare strategy – denying the adversary the use of nearby seas – is crucial in dictating conditions in the littoral space. ANI’s strategic location allows New Delhi to pursue this strategy in terms of maintaining its tactical stature at sea. With the growing importance of the Indo-Pacific, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands will continue to occupy the fore. the stage in India’s maritime strategy in the years and decades to come.


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