Maritime silk road – Gurugama http://gurugama.org/ Sun, 26 Sep 2021 02:00:04 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 http://gurugama.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/favicon-16.png Maritime silk road – Gurugama http://gurugama.org/ 32 32 Intermediate corridor countries gather in Baku http://gurugama.org/intermediate-corridor-countries-gather-in-baku/ Sat, 25 Sep 2021 08:30:38 +0000 http://gurugama.org/intermediate-corridor-countries-gather-in-baku/ middle lane countries meeting in Baku China, Kazakhstan. Representatives of the countries of the International Trans-Caspian Transport Road Union (TITR International Union), which continues its activities with the aim of developing the Trans-Caspian International Transport Road linking Europe to the Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan, Georgia to Europe via Turkey, met in Azerbaijan / Baku on September […]]]>
middle lane countries meeting in Baku

China, Kazakhstan. Representatives of the countries of the International Trans-Caspian Transport Road Union (TITR International Union), which continues its activities with the aim of developing the Trans-Caspian International Transport Road linking Europe to the Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan, Georgia to Europe via Turkey, met in Azerbaijan / Baku on September 24, 2021.

As permanent members of the union at the meeting that met for the TITR General Assembly; Azerbaijani Railway Company, Azerbaijani Caspian Sea Shipping Company, Aktau International Maritime Trade Port State Company, Baku, Georgia International Maritime Trade Port Company, Kazakhstan Ukraine Railways, General Directorate TCDD Taşımacılık AŞ and representatives of companies who are joint members of the union.

Hasan Pezük, General Manager of TCDD Taşımacılık AŞ, who attended the General Assembly as a member of the Board of Directors of the Association, in the opening speech of the General Assembly; Stressing that the middle corridor, which is the most important link of the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway line, continues to strengthen its importance in transport between the Asian and European continents and that there is an increasing demand for freight, he said the Middle Corridor is an important transportation gateway to ensure the continuity of trade with friendly countries during the pandemic period. declared.

Informing that the approximate amount of freight transported as of September 30, 2017, since the entry into service of the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway line on October 15, 2021, has reached 1,244,269 tons. He said that it is possible to transport different groups of products to destinations.

“Marmaray is the biggest proponent of fast and environmentally friendly transport by saving time and energy in addition to the economic power that the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway line brings to our country in international trade.”

Stating that the block container train services started in 2019 on the China-Turkey-Europe line from the central corridor are gradually increasing, General Manager Hasan Pezük said in his speech:

“As of September 15, 7.204 tonnes of freight have been transported from China to Turkey in 165.306 TEU containers, while 514 tonnes of freight have been transported from Turkey to China with 10.693 TEU containers. In early 2020, freight trains began crossing the Marmaray Bosphorus Tube crossing, the golden ring of the Middle Corridor, and a step towards uninterrupted rail freight transport between the Asian and European continents. Marmaray, the “Project of the Century”, which enables uninterrupted rail transport, is the biggest proponent of environmentally friendly and rapid transport by saving time and energy in addition to the economic strength of the Baku railway line -Tbilisi-Kars brought to our country in international trade. “

Pezuk also said, “Turkey is rapidly pursuing investments that increase the efficiency and productivity of the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway line and the middle corridor. In addition to the high-speed line projects under construction, Kars Logistics Center was completed in May 2021 and started operations. In addition, new applications are being implemented to reduce transport time and costs. In this context, the joint CIM / SMGS transport document began to be used from September 10, 2021 for freight rail transport carried out by our country on the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway line and the Middle Corridor. Thus, time and cost savings are achieved in our transport. noted.

General Manager Hasan Pezük said that as the General Management of TCDD Taşımacılık AŞ, they are extremely proud to be under the roof of the TITR International Union with friendly and brotherly countries, and said: “To this day , we have carried out exemplary work with dedication and solidarity. Thanks to these efforts, the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway line and the Middle Corridor are now established as the most reliable, simplest, economical and climate-friendly rail corridor among east-west rail links. . This corridor is not only a transport route, but also the Silk Iron Road, which accelerates the development of our countries, strengthens our friendship and our brotherhood, strengthens our solidarity and gives life to the continents. In addition to our government and ministry, as the General Directorate of TCDD Taşımacılık AŞ, we are making a great effort to increase the efficiency and productivity of this corridor. “

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Chinese belt and road run aground in the Philippines – analysis – eurasia review http://gurugama.org/chinese-belt-and-road-run-aground-in-the-philippines-analysis-eurasia-review/ Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:40:10 +0000 http://gurugama.org/chinese-belt-and-road-run-aground-in-the-philippines-analysis-eurasia-review/ By Michael Hart In late July, the Estrella-Pantaleon four-lane bridge was opened to traffic over the Pasig River in Manila, providing a new route between the urban centers of Makati and Mandaluyong in the congested capital of the Philippines. Approximately 50,000 vehicles will pass each day on the bridge, which was built by the China […]]]>

By Michael Hart

In late July, the Estrella-Pantaleon four-lane bridge was opened to traffic over the Pasig River in Manila, providing a new route between the urban centers of Makati and Mandaluyong in the congested capital of the Philippines. Approximately 50,000 vehicles will pass each day on the bridge, which was built by the China Road and Bridge Corporation under the aegis of Beijing’s Belt and Road Initiative and Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte’s national infrastructure program “Build, Build, Build ”.

Duterte, who attended a groundbreaking ceremony with the Chinese ambassador, welcomed the opening of the bridge and, after a virtual meeting with Xi Jinping on August 27, said he was considering the completion of other key infrastructure projects funded by China, ranging from flood control to railways. Yet many of the projects envisioned at the start of Duterte’s six-year presidency – when he left a state visit to Beijing with $ 24 billion in investments and loans – go unrealized as his tenure touches down. at its end.

“Belt and Road” and “Build, Build, Build”

Of the loans and investment pledges guaranteed during the 2016 visit, $ 15 billion reflected business-to-business agreements, while $ 9 billion was in the form of loans expected by Chinese banks for projects. specific or to Philippine companies. At least 17 memoranda of understanding or other agreements have been signed, covering a wide range of projects in sectors ranging from transport and manufacturing to renewable energy. The proposed Chinese projects covered the entire 1,850 km length of the Philippine archipelago.

In Beijing, Duterte hailed a new start for economic relations between the Philippines and China, after announcing his “separation” from a close traditional ally of the United States in front of the Chinese leaders. Xi Jinping responded to Duterte’s openness by lifting restrictions on Philippine banana and pineapple exports, which had been imposed years earlier amid rising tensions in the South China Sea. The Philippine president, seeking Xi’s support, was largely content to put these differences aside.

It appeared that the path was set for an economic boom in tune with the two leaders ‘grand plans: Duterte’s “Build, Build, Build” program, which upgraded the Philippines’ overloaded national infrastructure near the top. of its administration priorities – was to receive a boost in the form of long-term Chinese funding under the Belt and Road Initiative. At the western end of the Pacific, the Philippines marked a lucrative stopover along the envisaged Maritime Silk Route.

The various fortunes of Chinese projects

Over the next five years, however, projects took a long time to get started. In 2020, $ 620 million in official development assistance from China was disbursed to the Philippines, out of $ 4.6 billion earmarked for ongoing projects, most of which remained at the procurement stage. The Philippines hopes to add $ 1.9 billion to that total soon, with Under Secretary of Finance Mark Dennis Joven pointing out last month that the Export and Import Bank of China is evaluating loans for three more projects. major.

Finance Secretary Carlos Dominguez recently expressed his approval in the Filipino Daily Investigator of China’s implementation of projects already underway, but acknowledged that the “massive” deals were accompanied by red tape, citing in particular “difficulties in obtaining approvals”, and the fact that construction companies of the two countries involved in the joint ventures “get along. “

The fortunes of three Chinese-backed infrastructure projects in 2021 demonstrate these disparities:

In January, a deal was approved for a US $ 940 million freight railroad connecting two former US military bases to Luzon, the wealthy northern Philippine island. Construction of the 71 km single-track line will take approximately four years and, when completed, will connect the commercial areas of Subic Bay and Clark Air Force Base to ports and airports, facilitating the flow of goods and stimulating growth. of an existing economic center.

A few days later, the China Road and Bridge Corporation announced a US $ 400 million contract across the country for the construction of a 4 km overseas bridge connecting the city of Davao to Mindanao in Samal Island. The four-lane structure will allow automobile traffic to pass through the narrow Pakiputan Strait, thereby boosting trade and tourism in the region. Both projects look set to make a big difference in their communities.

However, not all projects got the green light. In Cavite, the provincial government earlier this year overturned a decision to award multibillion-dollar airport modernization work to a consortium led by the China Communications Construction Company, derailing one of the world’s largest projects. costly supported by China in the Philippines. Local governor Juanito Victor Remulla told Reuters the companies in the consortium were “deficient in three or four elements” and “not fully committed” to the project.

Remulla insisted the decision to cancel the contract was unrelated to the blacklisting of Chinese companies involved in the Sangley airport project by the United States, over their alleged role. in building military installations on disputed reefs in the South China Sea. Duterte rejected demolition deals with these companies, vowing that the infrastructure projects are in the national interest and must continue.

Belt and Road limited to the Philippines

Overall, Belt and Road presents a mixed picture in the Philippines. Only three major infrastructure projects backed by China are expected to be completed by the end of Duterte’s tenure in mid-2022. More are in the works, but much will depend on who wins next year’s election. Duterte is expected to run for the vice-presidency of the ruling PDP-Laban, alongside Bong Go or his daughter, Sara Duterte-Carpio, the current mayor of Davao. A victory for Camp Duterte would give the delayed projects a chance to move forward, while a victory for the opposition would leave the status of the projects unclear.

Whatever the outcome, Chinese-funded projects in the Philippines will be more dispersed and on a smaller scale than elsewhere in Southeast Asia, where massive Chinese investments in places like Laos have raised fears of a ” the debt ”. An expansive megaproject like the Pan-Asian Railway, which Beijing plans to take through Laos, Thailand and Malaysia on its way to Singapore is not a prospect in the Philippines, due to its island geography and proximity to China. . In the Philippines, Beijing also has less urgency because it has less to gain strategically than its closest neighbors in Southeast Asia.

As a result, Duterte’s move to China has been accompanied by an increase in Belt and Road investment, but not on the massive scale seen elsewhere in the region.

This article was published by Geophysical Monitor.com

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How China’s One Belt, One Road Initiative inaugurates a new paradigm in Asian geopolitics – the Dispatch http://gurugama.org/how-chinas-one-belt-one-road-initiative-inaugurates-a-new-paradigm-in-asian-geopolitics-the-dispatch/ Fri, 24 Sep 2021 03:50:45 +0000 http://gurugama.org/how-chinas-one-belt-one-road-initiative-inaugurates-a-new-paradigm-in-asian-geopolitics-the-dispatch/ Kinshuk Nag’s book “A New Silk Road: India, China and the Geopolitics of Asia” offers a deep and unknown insight into the political, economic, social and cultural factors underlying the current state. Sino-Indo relations. The book details China’s new “big game” in the Himalayas: to continue to seize large parts of Ladakh to serve the […]]]>
  • Kinshuk Nag’s book “A New Silk Road: India, China and the Geopolitics of Asia” offers a deep and unknown insight into the political, economic, social and cultural factors underlying the current state. Sino-Indo relations.


  • The book details China’s new “big game” in the Himalayas: to continue to seize large parts of Ladakh to serve the interests of the CPEC (China-Pakistan Economic Corridor), which is a key part of its initiative. ” the Belt and the Road “, as well as with continuous commercial links at the same time.


  • The author re-examines outdated assumptions and makes groundbreaking discoveries about China’s ambitions, and insists that India and China are very different nations with very diverse political and economic strategies, which Indians must understand to counter the Chinese enigma.


  • Read an excerpt from the book “A New Silk Road” below.


In today’s China, mention of the Silk Road conjures up memories of the nation’s greatness over a thousand years ago and the prosperity that has resulted from it. So when the post-Deng Xiaoping (circa 2000) Chinese rulers realized that the country had developed enough and sat on a pile of foreign currency, they claimed that they could recreate a road from the modern silk. This would allow China to rule the world again, as its excess money would be used to invest in countries that were on the New Silk Road to create highways, railways and other infrastructure such as electricity networks, seaports and oil and gas pipelines. . The countries where the money is invested would get it at noticeably low interest rates and easy repayment terms, and China would also benefit because, alongside the investment, jobs would be created. The Chinese government planned it so that the work would be handed over to companies in China, and countries were even encouraged to bring in labor from China. All of this would stimulate the Chinese economy. Countries where funds from China are deployed would generally become dependent on China and also become obligated to China. So it acts as a means of foreign policy, where these countries could be diplomatically influenced by China.

In 2013, China unveiled a grand plan – the One Belt One Road policy, or OBOR – credited to President Xi Jinping. It is also known as the Belt and Road Initiative, or BRI. It sits mainly on the old Silk Road route but has been extended to new territories. OBOR, in fact, was built on the “exit” policy initiated by Deng Xiaoping in the 1990s and launched by the next president (1993-2003), Jiang Zemin, to globalize the Chinese economy and its currency. .

The project has two components. The first is called the Silk Road Economic Belt, which is mostly land and will link China with Central Asia and Eastern and Western Europe. The second part of the project is called the Maritime Silk Road of the 21st Century. It is based on the sea and connects South China to the Mediterranean, Africa, Southeast Asia and Central Asia. In fact, as conceived by the Chinese, the project has six components:

  • the new Eurasian land bridge, connecting western China to western Russia;
  • the China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor, connecting northern China to eastern Russia via Mongolia;
  • the China-Central Asia-West Asia Economic Corridor, connecting West China to Turkey via Central and West Asia;
  • the China-Indochina Economic Corridor, linking southern China to Singapore via Indochina;
  • the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, connecting southwest China to Arabian Sea routes via Pakistan; and
  • the Bangladesh-China-Myanmar Corridor, connecting southern China to Myanmar and Bangladesh.

India has been proposed to be part of the last mentioned corridor, but there is strong opposition from the Indian government to be part of this initiative.

The OBOR plan not only uses foreign currencies in other countries, but is also designed to increase growth in the undeveloped parts of China. This includes Xinjiang in northwest China, which is sorely lacking in development. The other states chosen are Inner Mongolia in northeast China, Guangxi in southwest China, and Fujian on the southeast coast.

China perceives that the OBOR will eventually cover 70 countries and will be completed by 2049 (which will also mark the PRC’s centenary). If the OBOR is implemented as China wishes, it will catapult the nation to a position of great power.

China knows that a huge amount of funds will be needed to ensure the success of this massive program. In 2017, China pledged $ 113 billion for OBOR to be disbursed through the state-owned Silk Road Fund (established in 2015). Another initial capital of $ 40 billion will be provided by the Development Bank of China and the Import-Export Bank of China. In addition, the Beijing-based Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) will provide $ 100 billion and the Shanghai-based New Development Bank will provide $ 50 billion.

While many of the countries that will benefit from OBOR are quite optimistic and dynamic, many others see the danger. Some fear that China may begin to interfere in the functioning of its economies and governments, which will benefit from the large injections of funds from the OBOR. Aware of this, China now asserts that “there will be no interference in the internal affairs of countries” and that it will not seek to “increase its sphere of influence” or seek “hegemony. or domination ”. But small countries with weak political systems, even if they are able to comprehend the possibility of Chinese domination, choose to look away because of all the money they will get. For example, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are excited about OBOR because China will invest heavily in local transmission projects. Landlocked Nepal is also very positive as it will facilitate cross-border connectivity with China (across the mountains). It is usually the small countries that eagerly await the investments, which they see as an exceptional gain. India, as mentioned earlier, has serious problems with OBOR and has refused to join (although China has made serious efforts to persuade India). A deeper understanding of the reasons is therefore mandatory.

Extracted with permission from A New Silk Road: India, China and the Geopolitics of Asia, Kinshuk Nag, Rupa Publications. Learn more about the book here and buy it here.

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Western ulterior motives tout China’s maritime traffic safety law http://gurugama.org/western-ulterior-motives-tout-chinas-maritime-traffic-safety-law/ Thu, 23 Sep 2021 02:38:23 +0000 http://gurugama.org/western-ulterior-motives-tout-chinas-maritime-traffic-safety-law/ This bird’s-eye view shows the coral reefs of China’s Xisha Islands in the South China Sea. [Photo/Xinhua] On September 1, China’s revised maritime traffic safety law came into effect. This is a new initiative from China to promote law-based maritime governance as the country deepens its reform and openness and advances the rule of law […]]]>

This bird’s-eye view shows the coral reefs of China’s Xisha Islands in the South China Sea. [Photo/Xinhua]

On September 1, China’s revised maritime traffic safety law came into effect. This is a new initiative from China to promote law-based maritime governance as the country deepens its reform and openness and advances the rule of law comprehensively.

Since its amendment, the law has attracted international attention. But the Defense Departments of the United States and Australia have done everything possible to link this legislation to the issue of “freedom of navigation” in the South China Sea.

Some Western media have presented this amendment as a way for China to strengthen its claims in the South China Sea. They even argued that certain provisions of the law could increase the risk of maritime disputes. These narrow views and unfounded speculation point to the inherent bias of the West which has always seen China through tinted glasses in recent years.

As always, they abuse the concept of “freedom of navigation” and smear China according to their own understanding of maritime issues. This is the case with the China Coast Guard Law, as well as the Maritime Traffic Safety Law. Maritime traffic safety, an integral part of maritime governance, is linked to the safety of passengers and goods and to the order of transport. It is also closely associated with the exploitation of maritime resources, environmental protection, rescue at sea and other issues of maritime governance.

Beginning with the Maritime Traffic Safety Law in 1984, China has gradually established a framework and basic system for the management of maritime traffic safety. With the adoption of a maritime power, a strong transportation country strategy, and progress in building the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, China has found that its existing laws and regulations can hardly meet the new ones. trends and new requirements in maritime traffic safety and maritime transport governance.

As a large maritime and maritime nation, China faces an increasingly complex maritime traffic environment and heavy traffic unprecedented in its jurisdiction – ships and offshore installations are multiplying and becoming larger and more specialized , leading to increased security risks and management difficulties.

Several problems arose in the application of the previous edition of the Maritime Traffic Safety Act. These include an unclear legal basis, non-specific rules and regulations, and regulatory measures that are difficult to enforce. Therefore, modifications are necessary to deal with new problems in new circumstances.

China is the world’s second-largest economy and the largest merchandise trader. Its ranking in port throughput is No. 1 worldwide. For China, maritime traffic security has extended from production security to economic security and strategic security which are more international and external. It goes without saying that China’s efforts to maintain the safety of maritime traffic can make a substantial contribution to the maintenance of normal order in international maritime transport. It can also help the healthy and stable development of the international maritime industry. In this sense, China’s review of the Maritime Traffic Safety Law is a step forward in building a system of high-quality regulation and services for maritime traffic. It is also an important development of national legislation to improve the international system of maritime rules and participate in global governance of the oceans.

Since 1989, China has been re-elected 16 times as a Category A member state of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). So far, China has signed various international maritime conventions and related intergovernmental agreements involving the obligations of contracting parties, flag states and coastal states in more than 700 matters.

The new amended maritime traffic safety law has systematically translated the content of a series of international maritime conventions concluded or to which China has acceded into domestic law. This is done to achieve an appropriate alignment and harmonization of national and international law. It demonstrates to the international community China’s position and commitment to fully fulfill its treaty obligations, participate in international maritime cooperation, maintain order in maritime transport, and provide relevant international public goods.

China’s Maritime Traffic Safety Law states that submersibles, nuclear-powered ships, and foreign ships carrying radioactive or other toxic and noxious substances must report to maritime authorities when entering or leaving Chinese territorial waters. . This provision has nothing to do with the issue of “freedom of navigation” claimed by the United States and Australia.

In accordance with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the coastal State can adopt laws and regulations on the safety of navigation, the management of maritime traffic, the preservation of the environment and the prevention and pollution control in waters under its sovereign jurisdiction. .

While it does not expressly require that submarines and other foreign submarines report their entry into the territorial sea to the coastal state, UNCLOS does not ipso facto exclude the right of the coastal state to take action. appropriate in line with the spirit of UNCLOS when necessary. . This must be done to protect its interests in peace and security. UNCLOS stipulates that oil tankers, nuclear-powered ships and ships carrying nuclear substances or materials or other inherently dangerous or noxious substances or materials may be required by the coastal state to restrict their passage to sea lanes. designated or prescribed. The provisions of the Maritime Traffic Safety Act stipulate that these vessels must report to the maritime authorities. This does not contradict the spirit of the provisions of UNCLOS. Instead, it makes administrative measures more operational and specific.

In terms of international practice, many countries have introduced regulations on specific types of foreign vessels entering and leaving their territorial waters in accordance with UNCLOS. This is done in order to maintain national security, maintain order of sea lanes and protect the marine environment. For example, 16 countries, including New Zealand, Egypt, Malaysia, Romania, Maldives, Saudi Arabia, Malta, Mexico, and Iran, require nuclear-powered ships or ships carrying radioactive substances obtain an authorization before entering their territorial waters. Countries like the United Arab Emirates and Pakistan require nuclear-powered ships or ships carrying radioactive substances to make notifications before entering their territorial waters. France and Slovenia require ships carrying radioactive substances to navigate in prescribed or separate lanes.

As for the freedom of navigation, it is by no means a legal notion that goes without saying. Its existence is based on the legal status of the maritime area in which the navigation activity takes place. In the territorial sea under the sovereign jurisdiction of the coastal State, foreign vessels enjoy the right of navigation. This includes the right of innocent passage; that is, foreign vessels only enjoy “freedom of navigation” in the maritime area beyond the sovereign jurisdiction of the coastal state. This difference in expression is closely linked to the different legal status of the maritime areas in which navigation activities take place.

The legal framework for the sea established by UNCLOS is based on the division of maritime areas into different legal statuses. The determination of the legal status of maritime zones and of the rights and obligations of States within each zone, including the navigation regime, represents a delicate balance which has been achieved directly by agreement between the parties.

The right of foreign vessels to navigate in maritime areas under the sovereign jurisdiction of the coastal State does not derive from the freedom of navigation. The assertion that such a right of navigation is equivalent to the freedom of navigation will obviously infringe the rights of the coastal State. It will thus upset the balance of rights and obligations between the coastal State and the other States.

A small number of States attempt to generalize the concept of “freedom of navigation” on the basis of geopolitical considerations or to exert unilateral influence on the interpretation of UNCLOS and the development of customary international law through the operations of freedom of navigation. This will not bridge the differences between the parties in the interpretation and application of UNCLOS. Instead, it can affect or even undermine the authority and integrity of the international law system.

Ding Duo is deputy director of the Ocean Law and Policy Research Center at the National Institute for South China Sea Studies in Hainan, China, and a non-resident researcher at the Institute for China-America Studies (ICAS) in Washington, DC.

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What UKUS and Afghanistan tell us about US strategy in Asia – the Diplomat http://gurugama.org/what-ukus-and-afghanistan-tell-us-about-us-strategy-in-asia-the-diplomat/ Tue, 21 Sep 2021 13:52:30 +0000 http://gurugama.org/what-ukus-and-afghanistan-tell-us-about-us-strategy-in-asia-the-diplomat/ Advertising The Taliban’s rapid takeover of Afghanistan made headlines around the world. Few could have predicted that the predominantly Pashtun Islamic fundamentalist group would resurrect power in the summer of 2021, after leading a 20-year insurgency against the US-backed government in Kabul. In the aftermath of the US-led invasion in 2001, the Taliban began to […]]]>

The Taliban’s rapid takeover of Afghanistan made headlines around the world. Few could have predicted that the predominantly Pashtun Islamic fundamentalist group would resurrect power in the summer of 2021, after leading a 20-year insurgency against the US-backed government in Kabul.

In the aftermath of the US-led invasion in 2001, the Taliban began to challenge NATO and reclaim large areas of southwestern Afghanistan after intensive regrouping in Pakistan. The signing of a withdrawal agreement with the United States in Doha encouraged the Taliban to press their advantage and end the 20-year-old war. Backed by Pakistani Interservice Intelligence (ISI), the Taliban achieved quick success as the United States withdrew its remaining troops from Afghanistan. By August 2021, the Taliban had conquered all the major cities of Afghanistan and ultimately Kabul. In September, they controlled the whole country after taking the mountainous Panjshir valley, where the National Resistance Front, led by Ahmad Masoud, had vowed to continue fighting the Taliban.

Less than a month later after the fall of Kabul, US President Joe Biden, British Prime Minister Boris Johnson and Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison launched a trilateral security partnership, called AUKUS, to counter China. The AUKUS Pact will allow Australia to deploy nuclear-powered submarines, which are supposed to be built in Adelaide, making Canberra the seventh country in the world to have submarines powered by nuclear reactors. The central aim of this trilateral pact is to contain the threat emanating from China’s increased influence in the Indo-Pacific and its global ambitions. Unsurprisingly, the formation of AUKUS spilled over into intensifying Indo-Pacific tensions, particularly over Taiwan, the South China Sea and the East Indian Ocean.

At first glance, it appears that the developments in Afghanistan and Australia are unrelated events. One was centered in the Hindukush Mountains; the other echoed 9,500 kilometers away, in the midst of Indo-Pacific waters. Nevertheless, in a larger context, these two events are interconnected at the heart of the Sino-American competition, forming the bookends of a new strategy that I call “leave the Belt, press the Road”. By this, I mean the United States will increasingly target China’s Silk Road Sea Route, while largely abandoning the Silk Road land economic belt. In short, the major front of the Sino-US infrastructure war is the Indo-Pacific rim, while the core of Eurasia will be left to the destabilizing forces in the region.

The establishment of AUKUS reaffirms that the cornerstone of Washington’s China containment strategy is in the Indo-Pacific zone. As a result, the US focus on geographic locations in the heart of Eurasia will be degraded – but that’s part of the plan. The United States’ unwillingness or ability to maintain its presence in Eurasia may intentionally disrupt the stability of the belt by generating a threatening power vacuum. The rapid withdrawal of the United States from Afghanistan and the empowerment of the Taliban that followed has the potential to destabilize Chinese land-based projects in Central Asia, Pakistan and even Xinjiang. While the chaotic withdrawal from the war in Afghanistan took a toll on Biden’s position at home, the geopolitical vacuum in Afghanistan following the US withdrawal could be used to offset Moscow, Beijing and even Tehran, which will now have to dealing with the empowerment of Islamic extremists in Central and West Asia.

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Despite the seemingly sudden developments of the past two months, this trend in global competition is not new. After a hiatus of almost ten years, the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, also known as the Quad, was officially resumed in August 2017 to contain Beijing’s projection of maritime power in the South China Sea and the Ocean. Indian. Originally founded in 2007, the Quad consists of Australia, India, Japan and the United States, heralding the possible formation of an Asian NATO to counter the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). There were even rumors of a “Quad Plus” when South Korea, New Zealand and Vietnam joined the meetings in March 2020. The Malabar exercises held annually by India are a major manifestation of its military component.

In a 2021 joint statement on “The Spirit of the Quad,” leaders from Australia, India, Japan and the United States underscored “a shared vision for a free and open Indo-Pacific (FOIP ) “And” rules – based on the maritime order in the East and South China seas “to counter the maritime threat from China. This progress was concomitant with the increasingly strategic attention of the EU towards the Indo-Pacific area as France, Germany and the United Kingdom accelerated their cooperation with the Quad Plus dialogue. In this context, the AUKUS pact would complement the Quad to counterbalance the growing influence of China in the Indo-Pacific.

While AUKUS and the Quad both exhibit military technological and muscular firepower, they lack fundamental proportionality. The Belt and Road Initiative is Beijing’s main geoeconomic strategy to challenge US hegemony in the world, while the Quad and AUKUS are geostrategic and military tools to counter China in the Indo-Pacific area. In other words, there is a strategic gap between the threatening force and the deterrent counter-force. It was this proportionality gap that prompted the Biden administration to launch a specific geoeconomic counter-force against Belt and Road: Build Back Better World, or B3W, announced in June at the G-7 summit in Cornwall, UK. -United.

Led by the United States, B3W aims to counter China’s global influence by investing heavily in infrastructure development in developing countries by 2035. The plan is expected to provide around $ 40 trillion, mostly from the sector. private, low- and middle-income countries. , from Latin America and the Caribbean to Africa and Asia. Guided by the standards and principles of the Blue Dot Network (BDN), B3W projects commit to focus on several areas, including climate, health and safety, digital, equity and gender equality . The global reach of B3W would endow its G-7 partners with different geographic orientations to target specific low and middle income countries around the world. While the United States focuses on the Indo-Pacific, Japan and the EU will focus on Southeast Asia and the Balkans, respectively, in a bid to counter China’s global influence.

The upcoming competition between B3W, now backed by Quad and AUKUS, and the Chinese BRI is a prelude to the Sino-American infrastructure war. The B3W is not just a US financial response to China’s economic ambitions; rather, it is a strategic effort to transform the emerging geopolitical arrangement of Greater Eurasia and its coastal waters by establishing a new development model. In other words, the United States is unleashing a geoeconomic counter-force against the Chinese BRI to achieve its great geopolitical objectives by mobilizing its private companies and those of its allies in massive investments in infrastructure to control the corridors of the BRI. . The new infrastructure war will determine the trajectory and path of the geopolitical battle between China and the United States for world domination in the 21st century.

On the other side of the world power equation, China has successfully controlled the Central Asian markets while pursuing its doctrine of “positive balance” among all parties in West Asia, according to which the expanding cooperation with Beijing may be the only point on which all regional powers can agree. China’s spectacular economic growth and internal stability have attracted undemocratic political systems to the region. Beijing has established close economic relations with the Sheikhs of the Persian Gulf, Israel, Iran and Turkey at the same time. However, Beijing’s successful policy of cementing its connection with West Asia through Central Asia may be disrupted by threats emanating from Afghanistan. The US withdrawal from Afghanistan will destabilize the land belt as strong pressure from Quad and now UKUS will oppose the sea route.

The world is on the brink of Sino-American international competition. Regional developments, like AUKUS, and national transformations, like the Taliban takeover of Kabul, will both be crucial parts of the grand chessboard between the United States and China. Now that the dust has settled in Kabul, we can see how the rise of the Taliban is concomitant with the AUKUS trilateral pact. Both are milestones for a new phase of the Sino-American competition: leaving the Belt, pushing on the Road.

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The Silk Road: 8 goods traded along the old network http://gurugama.org/the-silk-road-8-goods-traded-along-the-old-network/ Mon, 20 Sep 2021 20:10:13 +0000 http://gurugama.org/the-silk-road-8-goods-traded-along-the-old-network/ The Silk Road was not a single route, but rather a vibrant trade network that crisscrossed central Eurasia for centuries, connecting distant cultures. Traveling on camels and horses, traders, nomads, missionaries, warriors, and diplomats not only traded exotic goods, but also transferred knowledge, technology, medicine, and religious beliefs that have reshaped ancient civilizations. The term […]]]>

The Silk Road was not a single route, but rather a vibrant trade network that crisscrossed central Eurasia for centuries, connecting distant cultures. Traveling on camels and horses, traders, nomads, missionaries, warriors, and diplomats not only traded exotic goods, but also transferred knowledge, technology, medicine, and religious beliefs that have reshaped ancient civilizations.

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Initiative unveiled at 2021 Silk Road International Maritime Cooperation Forum to maintain unhindered supply chain http://gurugama.org/initiative-unveiled-at-2021-silk-road-international-maritime-cooperation-forum-to-maintain-unhindered-supply-chain-2/ Mon, 20 Sep 2021 01:38:27 +0000 http://gurugama.org/initiative-unveiled-at-2021-silk-road-international-maritime-cooperation-forum-to-maintain-unhindered-supply-chain-2/ BEIJING, September 20, 2021 / PRNewswire / – An initiative jointly launched by practitioners from the global shipping and logistics industry was recently released at the 2021 Silk Road International Maritime Cooperation Forum held in Xiamen from the south-east from China Fujian Province, aiming to jointly build a seamless and unhindered global supply chain. The […]]]>

BEIJING, September 20, 2021 / PRNewswire / – An initiative jointly launched by practitioners from the global shipping and logistics industry was recently released at the 2021 Silk Road International Maritime Cooperation Forum held in Xiamen from the south-east from China Fujian Province, aiming to jointly build a seamless and unhindered global supply chain.

The photo taken on September 9 shows the panel discussion at the 2021 Silk Road International Maritime Cooperation Forum held in Xiamen, southeast China’s Fujian Province.

As the global supply chain and economic and social development were strained by the COVID-19 pandemic as well as climate change, practitioners on the ground must make unremitting efforts to stabilize the supply chain. global supply, according to a forum participant.

According to the initiative, all parties pledged to continue to uphold the basic principle of openness and inclusion, jointly build a multilateral cooperation mechanism, and maintain the stability and fluidity of the international supply chain. .

All parties are invited to adhere to the concept of development in harmony with nature, to strengthen low-carbon and sustainable development of ports as well as the shipping industry.

Priorities will also be given to jointly responding to challenges and creating a win-win business environment. The parties will strengthen communication and cooperation to continuously extend the scope of services in the maritime industry while ensuring the stable functioning of existing businesses.

In order to further improve the efficiency of the services of the maritime industry, all parties will endeavor to strengthen the application of innovative digital and intelligent methods in the field of port operations.

It is worth mentioning that the 2021 Silk Road International Maritime Cooperation Forum was co-organized by the People’s Government of Fujian Province and the China Institute Navigation, and organized by the People’s Government of Xiamen City, Fujian Provincial Development Reform Commission and ect., aiming to serve the maritime silk route of the 21st century construction.

SOURCE Xinhua Silk Road

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Initiative unveiled at 2021 Silk Road International Maritime Cooperation Forum to maintain unhindered supply chain http://gurugama.org/initiative-unveiled-at-2021-silk-road-international-maritime-cooperation-forum-to-maintain-unhindered-supply-chain/ Mon, 20 Sep 2021 01:34:00 +0000 http://gurugama.org/initiative-unveiled-at-2021-silk-road-international-maritime-cooperation-forum-to-maintain-unhindered-supply-chain/ BEIJING, September 20, 2021 / PRNewswire / – An initiative jointly launched by practitioners from the global shipping and logistics industry was recently released at the 2021 Silk Road International Maritime Cooperation Forum held in Xiamen from the south-east from China Fujian Province, aiming to jointly build a seamless and unhindered global supply chain. The […]]]>

BEIJING, September 20, 2021 / PRNewswire / – An initiative jointly launched by practitioners from the global shipping and logistics industry was recently released at the 2021 Silk Road International Maritime Cooperation Forum held in Xiamen from the south-east from China Fujian Province, aiming to jointly build a seamless and unhindered global supply chain.

The photo taken on September 9 shows the panel discussion at the 2021 Silk Road International Maritime Cooperation Forum held in Xiamen, southeast China’s Fujian Province.

As the global supply chain and economic and social development were strained by the COVID-19 pandemic as well as climate change, practitioners on the ground must make unremitting efforts to stabilize the supply chain. global supply, according to a forum participant.

According to the initiative, all parties pledged to continue to uphold the basic principle of openness and inclusion, jointly build a multilateral cooperation mechanism, and maintain the stability and fluidity of the international supply chain. .

All parties are invited to adhere to the concept of development in harmony with nature, to strengthen low-carbon and sustainable development of ports as well as the shipping industry.

Priorities will also be given to jointly responding to challenges and creating a win-win business environment. The parties will strengthen communication and cooperation to continuously extend the scope of services in the maritime industry while ensuring the stable functioning of existing businesses.

In order to further improve the efficiency of the services of the maritime industry, all parties will endeavor to strengthen the application of innovative digital and intelligent methods in the field of port operations.

It is worth mentioning that the 2021 Silk Road International Maritime Cooperation Forum was co-organized by the People’s Government of Fujian Province and the China Institute Navigation, and organized by the People’s Government of Xiamen City, Fujian Provincial Development Reform Commission and ect., aiming to serve the maritime silk route of the 21st century construction.

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Thailand plans to sign free trade agreements with more Chinese provinces http://gurugama.org/thailand-plans-to-sign-free-trade-agreements-with-more-chinese-provinces/ Sun, 19 Sep 2021 10:29:47 +0000 http://gurugama.org/thailand-plans-to-sign-free-trade-agreements-with-more-chinese-provinces/ Jurin said the ministry is planning to hold online business matchmaking activities between Thailand and Hainan at the end of 2021 and a trade fair, exhibiting world-class Thai brands, at the Hainan Expo. for the second year in a row, focused on health promotion. and wellness products and services. The government aims to sign mini […]]]>
Jurin said the ministry is planning to hold online business matchmaking activities between Thailand and Hainan at the end of 2021 and a trade fair, exhibiting world-class Thai brands, at the Hainan Expo. for the second year in a row, focused on health promotion. and wellness products and services.

The government aims to sign mini free trade agreements (FTAs) with other Chinese provinces following strengthened partnerships resulting from the first FTA with the province of Hainan at the end of August.

Commerce Minister Jurin Laksanawisit said the ministry plans to hold online business matchmaking activities between Thailand and Hainan at the end of 2021 and a trade fair, exhibiting world-class Thai brands, at Hainan Expo for the second year in a row, focusing on promoting health and wellness products and services.

He said Thai officials were eager to sign similar partnerships to increase bilateral trade with more Chinese provinces, such as Gansu in the north, which is predominantly Muslim, making it a good choice for Thai halal products. .

According to the Ministry of Commerce, the Chinese government recently declared Hainan a free trade port, connecting it with the countries participating in the Belt and Road Initiative, in order to encourage trade activities there. Hainan is the smallest province in southern China and a strategic point connecting the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Great Bay region with Southeast Asia along the “Maritime Silk Road“. (NNT)

]]> Hainan mini-FTA deepens trade with China http://gurugama.org/hainan-mini-fta-deepens-trade-with-china/ Sat, 18 Sep 2021 02:00:00 +0000 http://gurugama.org/hainan-mini-fta-deepens-trade-with-china/ Thai seasonal fruits are expected to benefit from the trade deal with China. The government is optimistic about the trade prospects with China after the deepening of the partnerships via “mini-FTA” signed with the province of Hainan at the end of August. Thai authorities are eager to sign similar partnerships with other Chinese provinces to […]]]>

Thai seasonal fruits are expected to benefit from the trade deal with China.

The government is optimistic about the trade prospects with China after the deepening of the partnerships via “mini-FTA” signed with the province of Hainan at the end of August.

Thai authorities are eager to sign similar partnerships with other Chinese provinces to increase trade with the country.

Commerce Minister Jurin Laksanawisit said that following the first free trade agreement with a Chinese province, the ministry plans to organize online business matchmaking activities between Thailand and Hainan in late 2021.

Next year, the ministry plans to hold a trade fair showcasing world-class Thai brands at the Hainan Expo for the second year in a row, focusing on promoting health and wellness products and services. such as Thai massage, spa, beauty products, herbal products and holistic health services.

The Chinese government recently declared Hainan a free trade port, linking it to the Belt and Road Initiative countries to encourage trade activities there.

Hainan is the smallest province in southern China and a strategic point connecting the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Great Bay region with Southeast Asia along the “Sea Silk Road”.

Bilateral trade between Thailand and Hainan Province totaled 3.62 billion baht in the first half of this year, with exports amounting to 2.48 billion baht and imports being 1.14 billion.

“The ministry wants to sign mini-FTAs with other Chinese provinces like Gansu in the north, which is predominantly Muslim, which makes it a good compromise for Thai halal products,” Jurin said.

Under the partnership agreement, the collaboration between Thailand and Hainan covers five main areas. These five areas include cooperation in information exchange and measures to support small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) such as investment and the establishment of trade representatives; promotion of trade relations and reinforcement of creativity and innovation of SMEs through product development, widening of opportunities in third markets; facilitation of business activities by means of seminars, trade shows, business combinations and business delegations; expansion of the volume of trade in agricultural, food and industrial products; and promoting e-commerce and online business matching.

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